Brown mustard seed
Brown mustard (Brassica nigra L.)
Annual plant with a branchy stem, alternate leaves lanceolate at the top, and lyre-like pinnate leaves at the bottom. The yellow flowers form clusters that become longer once they bloom. The fruit of brown mustard seed is siliquae, which contains brown seeds.
Brown mustard seed comes from the Mediterranean region where it is grown for oil. Entire plants are harvested before they mature, when their siliqua begin to take a straw colour and the shoots start to wither. In order to avoid losing seeds, it is best to harvest just after the morning dew. The harvested plants are put out to the field for a short time to dry, then milled and cleaned. After that, the seeds are dried.
Seeds can contain up to 35 % of fatty oil, mucilage, protein and thioglycosides (sulphur-containing compounds) which release allyl isothiocyanate – a substance that can cause irritation and redness of the skin. Medicines that contain this substance are often used to improve the blood circulation in the skin and internal organs such as: lungs, pleura and kidneys.
Poultices from powdered seeds are applied to relieve pain resulting from rheumatism, cramps, or muscle fatigue. Another popular remedy is applying special patches, obtained by mixing grinded mustard seeds with water (45°C). Taking a 15-min bath in the decoction (40°C ) can do wonders for rheumatic pain.
Yellow mustard seed: its used as spices. The hot, burning taste of mustard comes from the essential oil from inside the seeds.
Brown mustard seed is used as condiment and also has medical application. Its colour ranges from dark brown to black.
Oriental mustard seed: contain ttannin that makes a good environment for mites and bacteria Gram (-) and Gram (+) to grow and proliferate.